🤖▶️ Check out the Design Patterns Overview course by Steve @ardalis Smith!Check it out »Hide


Repository Pattern

Repository Pattern

Last Updated: May 2024

The Repository Pattern has gained quite a bit of popularity since it was first introduced as a part of Domain-Driven Design in 2003. Essentially, it provides an abstraction of data persistence, so that your application can work with a simple abstraction (that your domain model owns) that has an interface approximating that of a collection. Adding, removing, updating, and selecting items from this collection is done through a series of straightforward methods, without the need to deal with database concerns like connections, commands, cursors, or readers. Using this pattern can help achieve loose coupling and can keep domain objects persistence ignorant. Although the pattern is very popular (or perhaps because of this), it is also frequently misunderstood and misused (for example, pretending that directly using a particular ORM type is equivalent to (or exactly) the repository pattern).

There are many different ways to implement the Repository pattern. Let's consider a few of them, and their merits and drawbacks.

Repository Per Entity or Business Object

The simplest approach, especially with an existing system, is to create a new Repository implementation for each business object you need to store to or retrieve from your persistence layer. Further, you should only implement the specific methods you are calling in your application. Avoid the trap of creating a "standard" repository class, base class, or default interface that you must implement for all repositories. Yes, if you need to have an Update or a Delete method, you should strive to make its interface consistent (does Delete take an ID, or does it take the object itself?), but don't implement a Delete method on your LookupTableRepository that you're only ever going to be calling List() on. The biggest benefit of this approach is YAGNI - you won't waste any time implementing methods that never get called. You should also only support repositories on your aggregate root objects. If you allow direct data access to members of aggregates, you break the encapsulation of the aggregate.

This approach works best when you don't have too many aggregates and you only need a couple of specific interactions with each of them. However, if you find that you're frequently performing the same kinds of CRUD operations, it may make sense to adopt a more generic approach...

Generic Repository Interface

Another approach is to go ahead and create a simple, generic interface for your Repository. You can constrain what kind of types it works with to be of a certain type, or to implement a certain interface (e.g. ensuring it has an Id property, as is done below using a base class). An example of a generic C# repository interface (that supports async since most implementations will be out of process and thus should be async) might be:

interface IRepository<T> where T : EntityBase
Task<T> GetByIdAsync(int id);
Task<List<T>> ListAsync();
TaskList<T> ListAsync(Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate);
Task AddAsync(T entity);
Task DeleteAsync(T entity);
Task EditAsync(T entity);
public abstract class EntityBase
public int Id { get; protected set; }

The advantage of this approach is that it ensures you have a common interface for working with any of your objects. You can also simplify the implementation by using a Generic Repository Implementation (below). Note that taking in a predicate eliminates the need to return an IQueryable, since any filter details can be passed into the repository. This can still lead to leaking of data access details into calling code, though. Consider using the Specification pattern (described below) to alleviate this issue if you encounter it. With the specification pattern, all of the specific queries are encapsulated inside of specifications which live in the domain model.

Generic Repository Implementation

Assuming you create a Generic Repository Interface, you can implement the interface generically as well. Once this is done, you can easily create repositories for any given type without having to write any new code, and your classes that declare dependencies (see also the Explicit Dependencies Principle) can simply specify IRepository<Item> as the type, and it's easy for your IoC container to match that up with a Repository<Item> implementation. You can see an example Generic Repository Implementation, using Entity Framework Core, here.

public class Repository<T> : IRepository<T> where T : EntityBase
private readonly ApplicationDbContext _dbContext;
public Repository(ApplicationDbContext dbContext)
_dbContext = dbContext;
public virtual async Task<T> GetByIdAsync(int id)
return await _dbContext.Set<T>().FindAsync(new object[] { id });
public virtual async Task<List<T>> ListAsync()
return _dbContext.Set<T>().ToListAsync();
public virtual async Task<List<T>> List(System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate)
return await _dbContext.Set<T>()
public async Task AddAsync(T entity)
await _dbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
public async Task UpdateAsync(T entity)
await _dbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
public async Task DeleteAsync(T entity)
await _dbContext.SaveChangesAsync();

Note that in this implementation, all operations are saved as they are performed; there is no Unit of Work being applied. There are a variety of ways in which Unit of Work behavior can be added to this implementation, the simplest of which being to add an explicit Save() method to the IRepository<T> method, and to only call the underlying SaveChanges() method from this method.


Another common question with Repositories has to do with what they return. Should they return data, or should they return queries that can be further refined before execution (IQueryable)? The former is safer, but the latter offers a great deal of flexibility. In fact, you can simplify your interface to only offer a single method for reading data if you go the IQueryable route, since from there any number of items can be returned.

A problem with this approach is that it tends to result in business (query) logic bleeding into higher application layers, and becoming duplicated there. If the rule for returning valid customers is that they're not disabled and they've bought something in the last year, it would be better to have a method ListValidCustomers() that encapsulates this logic rather than specifying these criteria in lambda expressions in multiple different UI/application layer references to the repository. Another common example in real applications is the use of "soft deletes" represented by an IsActive or IsDeleted property on an entity. Once an item has been deleted, 99% of the time it should be excluded from display in any UI scenario, so nearly every request will include something like

.Where(foo => foo.IsActive)

in addition to whatever other filters are present. This is better achieved within the repository, where it can be the default behavior of the List() method, or the List() method might be renamed to something like ListActive(). If it's truly necessary to view deleted/inactive items, a special List method can be used for just this (probably rare) purpose. Note that since 2022 EF Core has supported global query filters which can provide a useful mechanism for implementing this specific rule.


Repositories that follow the advice of not exposing IQueryable can often become bloated with many custom query methods. The solution to this is to separate queries into their own types, using the Specification Design Pattern. The specification can include the expression used to filter the query, any parameters associated with this expression, as well as how much data the query should return (i.e. .Include() in EF/EF Core). Combining the Repository and Specification patterns can be a great way to ensure you follow the Single Responsibility Principle and Open Closed Principle in your data access code. See an example of how to implement a generic repository along with a generic specification in C#.


If you're considering implementing the Repository pattern in your .NET application, especially if you're using EF/EF Core, have a look at the Ardalis.Specification repository and NuGet Package. It likely provides everything you need to get started, including both a repository implementation (which is optional for you to use) and support for the specification pattern, which you should strongly consider using in combination with your repositories. If you don't combine specifications with your repository (or use separate query objects whenever you need a query), you will likely run into the common problem of having many custom query methods on your repositories. This violates the Open Closed Principle and results in a lot more code than you would otherwise need (and more code means less productivity and greater chance of bugs).


DDD Fundamentals - Pluralsight

Repository (Martin Fowler)

Introducing The CachedRepository Pattern

Building a CachedRepository via Strategy Pattern

Repository Tip - Encapsulate Query Logic

Do I Need a Repository?

What Good is a Repository?

Specification Pattern

Edit this page on GitHub

On this page

Sponsored by NimblePros